Even though the heading of this article is self-explanatory, I’d still deep dive into the topic and share my analysis as to why these terms go hand-in-hand. So to begin with let’s touch upon what is Digital India?

Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India to ensure that Government services are made available to citizens electronically by improving online infrastructure and by increasing Internet connectivity or by making the country digitally empowered in the field of technology. – Source Wikipedia

In simpler words, the primary focus of this Rs 1.13 lakh crore initiative is empowering citizens of India with always available connectivity. And using technology to create a participative, transparent and responsive government.

Prime Minister Modi led ‘Digital India’ initiative has the following vision and pillars:

Vision Of Digital India

  • Digital Infrastructure as a Utility to Every Citizen
  • Governance & Services on Demand
  • Digital Empowerment of Citizens

Pillars Of Digital India

  • Broadband Highways
  • Universal Access to Phones
  • Public Internet Access Programme
  • e-Governance – Reforming government through Technology
  • e-Kranti – Electronic delivery of services
  • Information for All
  • Electronics Manufacturing – Target NET ZERO Imports
  • IT for Jobs
  • Early Harvest Programmes

The gist of ‘Digital India’ for citizens like you and me is – better connectivity, on demand services, more jobs in the IT sector. That brings us back to our topic Know mobile connectivity, Know Digital India – No mobile connectivity, No Digital India. Now that you have understood the essence of ‘Digital India’, let me touch base as to why mobile connectivity or the lack of it will make or break the ‘Digital India’ initiative.

Jharkhand.jpg

As a tech journalist, I’m mostly on the move and thus all my tasks take place on my smartphone. From filling stories, to checking mails or keeping up to date on social media everything takes place on the move. If I’m not doing it on my smartphone then it’s either my tablet or my laptop but all are ultimately connected or dependent on mobile connectivity. And there is almost 30-40% of population in the metro cities who are largely dependent on mobile connectivity for their livelihood. I’m not even counting millennial generation who are hooked on to their smart devices 24/7.

So when such a large chunk of society is dependent on mobile connectivity then why are suffering with bad or no connectivity. How can we make India the ‘Digital India’ that our PM foresees?

On digging further as to why we are stuck in medieval age of connectivity, when the world is planning 5G. I found out that there is a blame game going between Mobile Operators and TRAI. How did I figure this out?

Honestly, I wouldn’t have cared about how Digital India is faring but as they till say ‘you don’t care till you don’t suffer.’ Sadly, I did suffer and that’s when I decided to analyze the situation and write about it.

In fact, I’m still plagued by poor mobile connectivity as I write this post. The situation has got so out of hands that in my own room, if I move from one corner to another the call drops. What will I do with 4G or 3G connectivity if there are no networks, both at my workplace and home? And I not the only one ridiculed by poor or no connectivity. The only solution left was calling the mobile operators (Vodafone and Airtel) in my case and ranting about the issues I’m facing.

Frankly, you will not feel that you have got any help after you speak to the customer care at any of the telecom operators. It’s when you research and talk to senior officials you understand the dearth of the situation. I learnt it the hard way that it’s not the mobile operators that can be blamed about the poor or no mobile connectivity that we are facing, in fact due to lack of mobile towers they are also flooded with such complaints.

In my conversation with a senior official from a leading mobile operator, he stressed the fact that health related issues linked to mobile towers are a myth. And with such invalid claims most of the mobile towers have been removed from residential areas.

At a recent press conference, Ravi Shankar Prasad, Hon’ble Union Minister, Ministry of Communications and IT, Government of India, said “As responsible citizens, it is our duty to understand the importance of misplaced concerns of mobile tower radiation could seriously jeopardise India’s path to greatness as seamless mobility could be affected by such unfounded fears. Thousands of research have been done on the subject and so far there is no conclusive evidence to link mobile tower emissions to human health hazards.”

Now that you have read both sides of the story, you might be in a dilemma as to what next should be done?

The only thing that matters to me or should matter to you as consumer is unparalleled connectivity. And until the government is unable to provide us with a better mobile connectivity by revamping the infrastructure we cannot achieve ‘Digital India.’

So, Know Mobile Connectivity, Know Digital India – No Mobile Connectivity, No Digital India.

Read the full article here.

Go anywhere in the country, be it urban sections, rural geographies, educated communities, industrial towns suburbs or metropolitans, the word telecom tower is surrounded by myths that take you back in time when people believed that Earth was flat. The beliefs are so strong that degrees from reputed educational institutions fail to convince people to let go of their myths and associated misconceptions about telecom towers and Radiation. Ironically in a world so unbalanced a common factor that binds the society together is a myth, a farce, that has been scientifically discarded with enough empirical data points proving Telecom towers ‘Not Guilty’ of causing cancer!!

image-1

While people are justified in being overtly cautious about the safety and wellbeing of their loved ones but it is equally important for them to understand the technology and be able to differentiate between the myths and realities.

Initial culprits were identified as the telecom operators and the lobbying groups to be giving baseless theories about telecom towers having no adverse effects on the health of the living beings around it, then suddenly the concept of losing male potency originated scaring the daylights out of people, then there were videos and graphics of mobile phone radiations being able to pop popcorns and then there were individuals and indifferences of our community to believe anything being fed to them in the name of health hazards. Then began the blame game on the authorities and telecom stakeholders to be partnering with Network providers and accusations for easing the guidelines and emission norms set for Telecom towers and base stations. The list was endless and had detrimental effects in framing a policy framework and growth of the sector. Individuals, NGOs, citizen charters and resident welfare associations began propagating the thought with some baseless case studies and claims leading to unrest in some locations.

While the sector and this specific issue was being compared to Tobacco and Liquor lobby, came forth the norms (one of the most stringiest) and standards by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) and Telecom Regulator making the radiation/emission way below the approved levels. More so, these statistics when pitted against the standards followed by International Commission on non-ionising Radiation Protection suggested that India’s safety factor was (and is still) 10 times stiffer than in 90 percent countries. So much so, the radio frequency radiation from mobile towers and phones are in the range as minuscule as one-thousandth to one-millionth of an electron Volt! Thus, mobile tower “radiation” is lakhs of times weaker than X-rays or UV rays or even normal visible light. In fact, so low that they simply cannot cause any disturbance of electrons in the basic atoms of matter or living tissue. Hence, they are classified as “non-ionising radiation”.

And if the telecom stakeholders were also not to be trusted, came the studies from World Health Organization, The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and National Green Tribunal (NGT) and Researchers from IIT Madras, IIT Bombay, IIT Hyderabad, IIT Delhi and IISc Bangalore giving real data and proof points from studies conducted over a decade long period proving that there is no harmful impact of tower radiation on health. The reports claim that it is more inappropriate or bizarre to link up mobile tower emissions with the former category of high energy radiation which includes frequencies beyond ultraviolet, i.e. X-rays, gamma rays, etc. These all studies and findings were further backed by the rulings from Allahabad, Gujarat and Kerala High courts.

Kudos to the Government and Telecom department which has decided to be vocal about the misconceptions and clear the unnecessary confusion around the telecom base stations and radiations, leveraging the empirical data and research from these studies to propagate this amongst the masses.

While the information that was being circulated earlier was baseless and wrong, it is also time for the sector and stakeholders to use the right terminology and tonality for the telecom processes and equipments that make it sound simple and un-jargonized. They should associate and engage at a micro level helping individuals and groups understand and accept the technology as a support function rather than a ‘necessary evil’.

Read the full article here.

India needs to embrace and harness wireless communication technologies to become the most developed nation in the coming decades, telecom secretary JS Deepak said.

qa-panel

Whether India grows at normal pace or it actually leapfrogs to become one of the most developed nation in coming decades, will inter-alia depend on how we embrace and harness wireless communication technologies,” he said at at the inaugural session of a public outreach and awareness programme on electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions and mobile towers organised here under the DoT’s aegis.

 Stressing telecom towers are critical installations on which the backbone of wireless communication rests, he said that unfounded apprehensions around EMF emissions and mobile towers have the potential to derail the country’s growth story.
Deepak also said that there is no scientific evidence backing the claim that EMF radiation from mobile towers – which are below the safe limits prescribed by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) – can cause adverse health effects.

The DoT has already prescribed strict precautionary norms for exposure limit for the radio frequency field (base station emissions) which is 10 times more stringent than the existing limits prescribed by ICNIRP and recommended by WHO.

 “Our EMF norms are much stricter than what is followed by many developed nations, including the US, the UK and most parts of the European Union. Further, the government of India has taken adequate steps to ensure that telecommunications service providers strictly adhere to these prescribed norms,” he added.
Read the full article here.

A public outreach and awareness program was organized under the aegis of Department of Telecommunications (DoT) on Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Emissions and Mobile Towers.

img_1770

Delivering the inaugural address J S Deepak, Secretary, DoT, Ministry of Communications & IT, Govt. of India & Chairman, Telecom Commission, brought out the important role played by mobile telephony and various benefits derived from it, at an individual, social and national level. He emphasized that whether India grows at normal pace or it actually leapfrogs to become one of the most developed nation in coming decades, will inter-alia depend on how we embrace and harness wireless communication technologies.

He said that telecom towers are critical installations on which the backbone of wireless communication rests and unfounded apprehensions around EMF emissions and mobile towers have the potential to derail our growth story. The DoT Secretary said that there is no scientific evidence backing the claim that EMF radiation from mobile towers — which are below the safe limits prescribed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) — can cause adverse health effects. The DoT has already prescribed strict precautionary norms for exposure limit for the Radio Frequency Field (Base Station Emissions) which is ten times more stringent than the existing limits prescribed by ICNIRP and recommended by WHO. Our EMF norms are much stricter than what is followed by many developed nations, including the US, the UK and most parts of the European Union. Further, the Government of India has taken adequate steps to ensure that Telecommunications Service Providers strictly adhere to these prescribed norms, he added.

Dr R M Chaturvedi, DDG-CS, DoT, pointed out that WHO has referred to approximately 25,000 studies, conducted around the world over the past 30 years, and based on an in-depth review of scientific literature, has concluded, “Despite the feeling of some people that more research needs to be done, scientific knowledge in this area is now more extensive than for most chemicals. Current evidence does not confirm the existence of any health consequences from exposure to low level electromagnetic fields.

He also referred to EMF Project established by WHO, in which over 50 national authorities and 8 international organizations are involved. Together, since 1996, they have been reviewing scientific information to provide scientifically sound and objective answers to public concerns about thepossible hazards of low-level electromagnetic fields. He has observed that despite extensive research, to date there is no evidence to conclude that exposure to low-level electromagnetic fields is harmful to human health.

A Committee, formed at the behest of Allahabad High Court comprising experts from five IITs, AIIMS (Delhi), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, has also on the basis of scientific evidence, studies and reports available, found that there is no conclusive evidence about the stated dangers of EMF radiation from mobile BTS tower.

Shivendra Bhatnagar, Senior DDG, Telecom Enforcement Resource & Monitoring (TERM) unit, said, ” Strict monitoring and enforcement mechanism has been put in place by the DoT for EMF-related compliance. In case any BTS site is found to violate prescribed EMF norms, actions are taken to put a penalty of Rs 10 lakh per BTS per incidence, including closing of BTS site in case violation persists.

Several High Courts, including the High Courts of Punjab & Haryana, Madras, Kerala, Gujarat and Allahabad in cases related to issue of effects of the radiation from cellphone towers have given judgments whereby they have dismissed petitions, where the mobile tower installations were challenged in various localities, including residential, on grounds of health effects of EMF radiation.”

V K Gautam, Principal Secretary, IT, Govt of Maharashtra, emphasized on the need of creating robust infrastructure in order to enhance the quality of broadband and calling services.

Dr Suresh Attili from Grace Cancer Foundation and Dr. Anirudh Kohli, Head of Radiology, Breach Candy Hospital, Mumbai, endorsed the fact that scientific studies have not been able to conclude that EMF emissions from mobile towers can cause health hazards. Mobile towers in India have been found to be completely safe and emissions well within the prescribed Government of India norms. The program concluded with an interactive Q&A session between senior government officials and participants from civil society, RWA’s and the media.

Read the full article here.

All of us are living in a technology driven era, where we can do almost everything by using technology. Today, in this topic, we will talk about Mobile Towers Radiation. Is it too bad for our health or it is just a myth or rumors?

shutterstock_298246355

Radiation

First we should know about Radiation, now a days, everybody knows about Radiation, but maximum of them don’t know correct definition of it. Electromagnetic Radiation or Radiation or  Frequency all are same. Radiation is a form of energy that is all around us, such as radio waves, microwaves, X-rays and gamma rays. Sunlight is also a form of Electromagnetic Radiation energy. Radiation is widely use in medical field or health field too. Now a days radiation is everywhere, like Tv, Microwave, and even in Freeze. If all of us are living very happily with these items, then my one question is, “How Mobile Towers Radiation is bad for health?”, and radiation in Tv, Microwave, Freeze and in medical field is good for health. X-Rays, Gamma Rays, External beam radiotherapy and Proton therapy are highly usable radiations in medical field. Doctors use External beam radiotherapy and Proton therapy for cancer. Hope, now you may understand that radiation is not too bad as many people are talking now a days.

Mobile Tower Radiation Bad Or Myth

Mobile phones are widely use in across the globe. It is the one of the best medium for communication. Like other country, In India, it is also the best medium for communication.

In year of 1995 first mobile phone call was launched. First call was made in between that time West Bengal Chief Minister Jyoti Basu and Union Telecom Minister Sukhram.

From that time, citizen of India is widely using this. Now you may be thinking, why I’m telling you history of first mobile phone call. I want to justify one thing that after 21 years of first mobile call, there is not any disease or evidence of  disease happen due to mobile tower radiation or mobile. Many people say that mobile tower radiation is bad for pregnant women and children, but no one is justifying his own words. Is population rate is down in India after 1995? Is intelligence in Indian children become less after 1995? My answer is BIG NO.

India is a developing country and creating its own milestones in almost every verticals. We can’t neglect  importance of mobile phones in this development. It is one of the best medium for communication. Apart from traditional calls,  now a days, people are using their phones for video calling, conference calls, Skype calls, making or editing documents for their meetings. Without mobiles and mobile towers, we can’t imagine these kind of works. To make all of these things possible almost every telecommunication companies are doing their best for their subscribers. They are establishing their mobile towers at almost every corner in India to make hassle free service to their subscribers.

Dr. Bhavin Jankaria, Former President at Indian Radiology and Imaging Association, says about Mobile tower Radiation, “Mobile tower radiation is inherently a type of radiation that we believe does not produce any kind of significant harm to humans. We have been using X-ray radiations for more than 115 years, and we still haven’t been able to establish the relationship of cancer and radiation to any great extent. And the mobile tower radiation is inherently a type of radiation that we believe does not produce any kind of significant harm to humans.’’

Mobile tower radiation is also a key subject for World Health Organization (WHO). WHO has referred to more than 24000 articles from across the globe and concluded, “Current evidence does not confirm the existence of any health consequences from exposure to low level electromagnetic field”.

Telecom secy says unfounded apprehensions around electromagnetic field emissions can derail growth story

The department of telecommunications has taken it upon itself to address concerns raised by many activists and groups on the health hazards emanating from electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from mobile towers.

Telecom Secretary J S Deepak has been organising awareness programmes across the country to educate municipal corporators, doctors and residents’ welfare associations that India has among the most stringent EMF norms in the world.

JS Deepak
Addressing members of government and medical fraternity at an event in Mumbai, J S Deepak categorically said consumers cannot access mobile telephony services without mobile towers.

He said: “Telecom towers are critical installations on which the backbone of wireless communication rests and unfounded apprehensions around EMF emissions have the potential to derail our growth story.

Broadband penetration is directly connected with the rate of growth of any economy. Citing statistics, Deepak said that a 10 percentage points increase in broadband access leads to an increase in per capita GDP by 1.38 per cent. India is still a digital have-not compared to many other countries but in the next few years, India will add over 300-400 million broadband subscribers. Most of these will be mobile broadband users. And if people have to be part of a 24/7 network then mobile towers will have to be allowed in streets, residential buildings and public places.

Read the original article here.

India needs to embrace and harness wireless communication technologies to become the most developed nation in the coming decades, telecom secretary JS Deepak said on Tuesday.
Whether India grows at normal pace or it actually leapfrogs to become one of the most developed nation in coming decades, will inter-alia depend on how we embrace and harness wireless communication technologies,” he said at at the inaugural session of a public outreach and awareness programme on electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions and mobile towers organised here under the DoT ‘s aegis.

CS, Secy with panel

Stressing telecom towers are critical installations on which the backbone of wireless communication rests, he said that unfounded apprehensions around EMF emissions and mobile towers have the potential to derail the country’s growth story.
Deepak also said that there is no scientific evidence backing the claim that EMF radiation from mobile towers – which are below the safe limits prescribed by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) – can cause adverse health effects.

The DoT has already prescribed strict precautionary norms for exposure limit for the radio frequency field (base station emissions) which is 10 times more stringent than the existing limits prescribed by ICNIRP and recommended by WHO.
Our EMF norms are much stricter than what is followed by many developed nations, including the US, the UK and most parts of the European Union. Further, the government of India has taken adequate steps to ensure that telecommunications service providers strictly adhere to these prescribed norms,” he added.

Read the original article here.

JS Deepak, Union Secretary of the Department of Telecommunications and Information Technology, has dispelled fears that telecommunication towers are create health hazards for people.
Deepak addressed a public outreach and awareness programme organised under the aegis of the Department of Telecommunications on Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Emissions and Mobile Towers in Dehradun today. He said telecom towers were critical installations that were the backbone of wireless communication in the country. He admitted that unfounded apprehensions that telecom towers radiations were a health hazard could derail the country’s growth story.
Electromagnetic emission from mobile towers are much below the safety limits prescribed by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and recommended by the World Health Organization. There is no scientific evidence of telecom towers causing adverse health effects,” Deepak said.
shutterstock_112955221
Shivendra Bhatnagar, Senior Deputy Director General, Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring (TERM) unit, explained the strict monitoring and enforcement mechanism put in place by the Department of Telecommunications for EMF related compliance. He said a committee formed at the behest of the Allahabad High Court comprising experts from IITs, AIIMS, Delhi, Indian Council of Medical Research and the Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, had also on the basis of scientific evidences, studies and reports available, found that there was no conclusive evidence about the stated dangers of EMF radiation from mobile towers.
Another speaker Dr TK Joshi from Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi, said scientific studies had not been able to conclude that EMF emissions from mobile towers could cause health hazards. “Till date there is no evidence to conclude that exposure to low-level electromagnetic fields is harmful to human health,” he added.
Dr Suresh Attili from Grace Cancer Foundation said electromagnetic emission norms were much stricter in India than followed by many developed nations, including the USA, the UK and most parts of the European Union.
Several senior officers from the Central Government, Uttarakhand government, eminent persons and public representatives attended the programme.
Read the original article here.

Radiation from cellphone towers harmless

shutterstock_60738637

Hyderabad: Chief Secretary Rajiv Sharma said the government was approaching the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) for improving cell phone services in remote areas of the state, especially extremists’ affected areas. Delivering the inaugural address at an awareness programme on emission of Electromagnetic Field (EMF) from cell towers organised by DoT, the CS said that cell towers were absolutely safe.

DoT deputy director general (CS) Dr. R.M. Chaturvedi said that after holding about 25,000 studies in 30 years, the WHO had arrived at the conclusion that scientific knowledge in this area was now more extensive than for most chemicals. “The WHO involved more than 50 national authorities and eight international organisations in the EMF project since 1996. They have been reviewing scientific information to provide scientifically sound answers to public concerns about the hazards of low-level EMF,” he said.

Mr Chaturvedi said that as per international norms an EMF of 10 watts per square meter was allowed from cell towers. “But, in India, we are using only 1 watt per square meter. We shall hold the testing at cell towers from Thursday to create awareness among the public,” he said. Explaining about the hazards of EMF, he said, “There is no harm from the frequencies released by cell towers. If the atmosphere temperature exceeds 40 degrees Celsius, it will have a little impact and if it increases to 50 degrees Celsius, public feel uncomfortable,” he said.

DoT DDG-TERM Shivendra Bhatnagar said a penalty of Rs 10 lakh per incidence was imposed in case of any cell tower violating EMF norms. “If violation persists, sites and towers can also be closed down,” he said. DoT DDG-TERM G. Gowri Shankar, DoT director M. Chandramoli, KREST foundation chairman Dr. Kakarla Subba Rao, IT expert Dr. T. Hanuman Chowdary, doctors and experts also took part in the programme.

Read the original article here.

If random theories were to be believed, we would all have been dead by now or worse may have damaged the Blood cells, skin disorders, weak eyesight, hearing loss, balded, sexually and mentally incapacitated, given the mobile towers which are placed in close proximity of human in-habitation. Loss of Sparrows and Bees has already been blamed on the tower and site installations only not taking into account other factors including pollution, growing population and associated human infestation into animal habitat.

shutterstock_153293372

If latest reports by WHO, The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and National Green Tribunal (NGT) and Researchers from IIT Madras, IIT Bombay, IIT Hyderabad, IIT Delhi and IISc Bangalore are to be believed then there is no harmful impact of tower radiation on health.

 In-fact one of the reports put together by a 13-member advisory board constituted by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) mentions that the standards set by India are much lower than the universally embraced suggestions of the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which represent thermal and non-thermal impacts. Which means that radio-frequency radiations from mobile towers are non-ionising electromagnetic radiations and they can’t break chemical bonds or cause ionisation in the human body and linking up mobile tower emissions with the category of high energy radiation which includes frequencies beyond ultraviolet, i.e. X-rays, gamma rays, etc. would be absolutely in-appropriate. Radiation from both mobiles and towers are safe because they are low energy, non-ionising radiation that can induce only thermal effects.
In India, the concern in certain quarters about radiation from mobile towers arises from the highly flawed extrapolation of the fear of ionising radiation to the ultra-weak radio-frequency radiation from mobile towers and phones. This is the basic origin of the great Indian myth concerning mobile tower “radiation”.

While there is no denying that both cell towers and mobile phones emit radiation, but the emission levels are within regulations set by the regulator and the DoT in conjunction with Public health and medical research bodies. Stringent norms for telecom companies in India have been devised with the government stipulating a fine of Rs 10 lakh for violation and a penalty of more than Rs 10 crore for exceeding the prescribed limit for radiation from telecom towers. The mobile handsets too In India, are not allowed to emit radiation more than 1.6 watt/kilo, which is called SAR or specific absorption rate. This safety limit followed by India is far more stringent than norms followed by other developed countries. More so, these statistics when pitted against the standards followed by International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection suggest that India’s safety factor is 10 times stiffer than in 90 per cent countries.

There were concerns raised by WHO in 2014-15, suggesting that The government’s order to reduce the power of mobile towers’ radio frequency, to minimise harmful radiation, could be detrimental to humans. The experts believed that reduction in the power of a base station, the mobile handset transmits more frequency to stay connected to the network. As the handset is closer to the body, it could cause some health hazard. The estimated EMF radiation a mobile handset transmits is 1,000 times higher than that of a base station and the radiation exposure from a base station was about five times lower than from a television or a transistor.

The government which was under a lot of pressure from activists, citizen charters and residents’ organizations and the matter relates to the concern of citizens due to the lack of empirical research and data has come out in open to dismiss the myths attached to the current EMF standards and impact on human health. Last month Ravi Shankar Prasad, Telecom Minister cited WHO findings, mentioning no harmful impact of tower radiation on health.

On the hindsight, experts believe that the stringent norms set by the DoT could be detrimental to the country’s movement towards the next level of technology, such as 5G and have an adverse impact on quality of service and investments especially when The government is banking on mobile devices for the delivery of many citizen centric schemes such as financial inclusion and direct-benefit transfer. Radiation issues, which are not medically founded, could jeopardize these ambitious initiatives.

The original article was written and published by  from Telecom Talk. Read the original article here.